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Ayurveda Principles and Theory


The basic theory of Ayurveda revolves round imbalance and vitiation of three humors (Doshas). Ether (Akash), Air (Vayu), Fire (Agni), Water (Jal) and Earth (Prithvi) are the five elements which underline all living systems. These elements are constantly changing and interacting and can be simplified into three Vitiations (Doshas). When these doshas remain under harmony and balance, health of body does not get disturbed but, when their balance gets disturbed, a diseased state sets in. The three doshas maintains the integrity of the living organism. The three doshas constantly change themselves due to the doshic qualities of specific lifestyle, time and season.

The Tridoshas

The three doshas are Vata (Wind), Pitta (Bile) and Kapha (Phlegm) and due to predominance of the one dosha, a person's personality is determined that is ' Vata-Prakriti', 'Pitta- Prakriti' or 'Kapha Prakriti'. These tridoshas are the primary and essential factors of the human body that controls the physical structure and all the functions of the body. These are responsible for the physiological and psychological processes taking place in the mind and body.


Vata Dosha: Vata dosha is the most important of all the three doshas. It is derived from a Sanskrit word “vaayu” meaning that is responsible for moving things. It is also termed as wind.

Kapha Dosha: Kapha is the heaviest of the three doshas. It is derived from the Sanskrit word “shlish” meaning that holds things together. It is responsible for growth, adding structure and also offers protection.

Pitta Dosha: The word pitta is derived from the Sanskrit word “pinj” that means to shine. It is associated with fire that is why it is often regarded as the fire within the body. It organizes all the body activities after transformation.

Each person has an individual blend of the three doshas, with one or sometimes two doshas predominating.

According to Ayurveda’s basic concept of human body, there are seven body types and they are:

Mono Types

• Wind dominated individuals (vata)

• Bile dominated individuals (pitta)

• Mucus dominated individuals (kapha)

Dual Types

• Wind and bile dominated individual (vata and pitta)

• Wind and mucus dominated individuals (vata and kapha)

• Bile and mucus dominated individuals (pitta and kapha)

Equal Types

• Vata, pitta and kapha in equal proportions

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